In the process of using acid copper brighteners, the concentration of copper and acid are two important parameters that directly affect the performance of the plating solution and the quality of the plated layer. High copper and low acid and high acid and low copper are terms describing the different ratios of copper ions and acid concentration in the plating solution, and the effects of these two situations on plating are explained separately below.
High copper and low acid:
1. Leads to faster plating rates because of the high concentration of copper ions and thus easier deposition on the cathode.
2. Coarse grains and non-smooth surfaces may occur because oversaturation with copper ions tends to cause coarse grain growth.
3. When using acid copper brighteners, the pH of the plating bath rises (acidity decreases), which may affect the balance of the deposition process, resulting in a less compact or less adherent copper layer being deposited.
4.It may lead to darkening of the colour of the copper layer because oxides are more likely to be formed during the reduction of copper ions in liquids with high copper concentration.
High acid and low copper:
1. Causes plating to slow down, and because of the lower concentration of copper ions, the current density must be reduced to avoid over-electrolysis and excessive generation of hydrogen.
2. helps to maintain the conductivity and ductility of the plating bath, thus producing a smooth surface and higher quality plating.
3. high acid concentration increases the corrosiveness of the plating bath and may cause corrosion of the equipment and the surrounding environment.
4.If the acid is too high, it may cause cathodic polarisation, making copper deposition uneven.
When producing with acid copper brighteners, to ensure the quality of the plated layer, the concentrations of copper and acid in the plating bath need to be maintained within a suitable range and this balance is maintained by periodic analyses and replenishment. By carefully controlling the plating parameters, the desired plating effect and layer characteristics can be achieved.
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